Mediální studia 04/2007

STUDIES

Jaromír Volek, Jan Jirák, Barbara Köpplová:
Media Studies: Perspectives and Challenges (PDF)

ABSTRACT
The academic field of “media studies” is one of the modern interdisciplinary-orientated fields of social scientific research and university lecturing. It is a settled and well-developed discipline, although its stability is continuously attacked by a variety of trends, with the rapidly changing subject of its interest as one of the most important examples. The main traditions of studying the media are the cognitive-empirical tradition, the critical-speculative one and the “cultural” tradition. Apart from that, a strong tradition of historical study of media can be traced back. The last decade and the turn of the century have opened a new topic of media studies – the ICT. With dissemination of “new” technologies and their integration into social communication, new questions have been raised: how do the ICT based media influence the scope and shape of public communication? What are the political, commercial and cultural consequences of implementing these communications? What kinds of changes are caused by ICT regarding users’ habits? Last but not least, how to incorporate ICT development into a more traditional narrative of media development? The article aims to explain the cotemporary status of media studies with some comments on the “Czech” and “Slovak” media studies tradition, transforming some of these questions into a possible programme for future development of the whole field.

KEY WORDS
media studies – ICT – information ideology – information power – cognitive-empirical tradition – critical-speculative tradition – cultural tradition – communication-technology tradition

Jaromír Volek is mass communication theoretician and the Head of mass media studies programme at the Department of Media of Media Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Studies of Masaryk University in Brno. He graduated from sociology at the Faculty of Arts of Masaryk University. Since 1995, he has worked as a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Social Studies of Masaryk University, giving lectures in media theory and specialising on the issues of media audiences and their relations to new ICT. In the recent years, he has been dealing with research into the professional role of Czech journalists. E-mail: volek@fss.muni.cz

Jan Jirák is mass communication theoretician and the Deputy Head of the Centre for Mass Media. He graduated from the Faculty of Arts of Charles University, having studied English and Czech. He has taught the Czech language and stylistics at the Faculty of Journalism of Charles University. Since 1990, he has worked at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, focusing, in particular, on the role of the language and news analysis. In 1993, he contributed to establishing the Department of Media Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, while three years later, he help to found the Centre for Media Studies (CEMES) at the same faculty. In 1992 – 1997, he held the function of the Vice-Dean for International Relations of the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, and since 2000, he has been the Vice-Dean for Study Affairs. E-mail: jirak@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz

Barbara Köpplová is the head of the Department of Media Studies at the Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague. Among her main research interests is the development of Czech media in a global context. E-mail: kopplova@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz

Jaromír Volek, Jan Jirák:
Professional Self-Image of the Czech Journalists: Selected Attributes (PDF)

ABSTRACT
Habits, professional standards, routines, as well as the opinions of “press people” can offer at least partial answers to questions dealing with journalists as a specific socio-professional community. The article is based upon results of research project “Czech Journalist“ taken between the years 2003 and 2005 and its aim is to trace the basic types of their “professional self-definition”. The results suggest that along with traditional approaches of the journalistic profession (the “educational”, “advocate/adversarial” and “neutral/objective” types of journalists), there is a subgroup stressing a distinctive “career/pragmatic” approach to the role of being a journalist. Journalism is understood as an individual development tool, as a “fast track” towards an individual career (not only within the journalistic profession) by this subgroup.

KEY WORDS
Czech journalists – journalistic profession – mass media – professionalization – professional values – professional self-image – professional self-definition

Jaromír Volek is mass communication theoretician and the Head of mass media studies programme at the Department of Media of Media Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Studies of Masaryk University in Brno. He graduated from sociology at the Faculty of Arts of Masaryk University. Since 1995, he has worked as a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Social Studies of Masaryk University, giving lectures in media theory and specialising on the issues of media audiences and their relations to new ICT. In the recent years, he has been dealing with research into the professional role of Czech journalists. E-mail: volek@fss.muni.cz

Jan Jirák is mass communication theoretician and the Deputy Head of the Centre for Mass Media. He graduated from the Faculty of Arts of Charles University, having studied English and Czech. He has taught the Czech language and stylistics at the Faculty of Journalism of Charles University. Since 1990, he has worked at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, focusing, in particular, on the role of the language and news analysis. In 1993, he contributed to establishing the Department of Media Studies at the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, while three years later, he help to found the Centre for Media Studies (CEMES) at the same faculty. In 1992 – 1997, he held the function of the Vice-Dean for International Relations of the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University, and since 2000, he has been the Vice-Dean for Study Affairs. E-mail: jirak@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz

Irena Reifová:
Synové a dcery Jakuba skláře: Dominant and Resistant Meanings in Television Popular Fiction after 1985s (PDF)

ABSTRACT
This article explores the television serial Synové a dcery Jakuba skláře as an item of television popular fiction produced and broadcasted by Czechoslovak television in 1980s. Consequently it examines the serial’s production and textual categories in its connection to communist ideology. The concept of ideology is also reviewed with an eye to its development in cultural studies in last two decades. The serial represents a form of film historiography as it covers almost sixty years of Czechoslovak history from 1899 to 1957. The textual content is examined from the methodological perspective of textual orientators – narrative features that refer to historical reality and simultaneously also refer to the moment of production by paradigmatic choices. Ideological choice of textual orientators is spotted in ascribed role of social democratic party and communist party and also in the division of two phases of communist periods: times of struggle and times of power. However, the central textual category is disconnected from communist ideology. It represents universal modernist essentialism and postulates inner human qualities (in contrast with surface) as a marking sign of main good heroes.

KEYWORDS
ideology – communism – television – television serial show – history – textual orientator – essentialism – modernity

Irena Reifová works as a senior lecturer at the Department of Media Studies of the Faculty of Social Sciences of Charles University in Prague. She also works at the Centre for Media Studies. She has dealt with the issues of the role of media in post-modern society. Currently, her pedagogical and scientific work focuses on the critical traditions in cultural studies, as well as on the phenomenon of popular culture. Together with a team of authors, she prepared and edited the Dictionary of Media Communication (Portál, 2004). She also translates professional and scientific literature from English. E-mail: reifova@seznam.cz

Jakub Macek, Kateřina Škařupová, Vít Kouřil:
Liquid Prosperity: the Czech State and LG.Philips Displays (PDF)

ABSTRACT
This study offers a discourse analysis of media construction of unsuccessful foreign investor’s case, dealing namely with the case of LG.Philips Displays Holding and the Czech state and covering the case since the investor’s decision to settle in Czech Republic taken in 2000 until the period of the investor’s bankruptcy in 2006. The particular method developed for the analysis is based on Michel Foucalt’s notion of discourse and derived from his theoretical conception of discourse analysis. The method which emphasizes rather structural than linguistic level of discourse is inspired by Gerbner’s message system analysis and by de Gruyter’s tracking discourse technique as well. The study, analyzing nearly 700 articles published in two Czech printed dailies and two Czech weeklies, reveals a significant bias of the Czech printed media, since a very strong politicalization of the subject was typical for the media representation of the whole case. The discourse of party–spirited policy emerged in connection with the reflection of government’s investment incentive policy.The arrival of Philips was presented as a result of a successful government policy; on the other hand, other important factors were underestimated. Media also took up government agenda uncritically. Particularly in the first years, the party–spirited themes and an uncritical view of the investor forced out the economic–analytical discourse. The media rarely took into account the risks that go together with foreign capital or the decline of the classical TV screen (CRT) market. Besides that, the media stereotypically labelled actors involved in controversies with LG.Philips Displays.

KEYWORDS
Czech press – foreign investments – discourse analysis – tracking discourse – discoursive formation – thematic structure

Jakub Macek has been working as a lecturer at the Department of Social Sciences, Technical University of Ostrava since 2007. He also lectures at Masaryk University in Brno. He has degrees in media studies and journalism from the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University where he is currently a PhD student of sociology. His research interests include the social theory of new communication technologies and media and technological subcultures. He is an editor of Mediální studia/Media studies. E-mail:jakub.macek@gmail.com

Kateřina Škařupová is PhD student of sociology at the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University where she also gained MA degrees in media studies and journalism. Her MA thesis was devoted to people who decided to exclude television from their lives. Her doctoral dissertation explores the relationship between television and collective memory. E-mail: skarupov@fss.muni.cz

Vít Kouřil has degrees in media studies and journalism from the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University where he is currently a PhD student. His research concentrates on the political economy of media, music industry and the relationship between media and non-governmental organizations. He is the editor-in-chief of the journal Sedmá generace. E-mail: kouril.vit@gmail.com

Jakub Končelík, Jan Cebe, Barbara Köpplová:
Press Regulation between 1939 and 1945: Analysis of Protectorate Press Meetings (PDF)

ABSTRACT
The article deals with press regulation in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from 1939 to 1945. It provides a brief introduction to the mechanisms used to influence the content and formal aspects of press communication so that they matched the interests and needs of the occupying power. The main part of the paper presents the results of a quantitative analysis of minutes from press meetings, regularly organized for journalists by the Press Department of the Council of Ministers. At these meetings members of the Press Department and the Cultural and Political Department of the Reich Protector evaluated media performance during the previous period and gave instructions to the representatives of the periodicals about the content and style of their writing. These meetings thus represented one of the most important instruments of control over Protectorate press. Our analysis presents their formal structure and demonstrates, using examples of specific speeches, that the efforts to influence media communication flows were not solely repressive but also clearly manipulative.

KEYWORDS
media – press regulation – press meetings – Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia – 1939 to 1945 – quantitative content analysis – thematic agenda – Czech press – censorship – totalitarian media system

Jakub Končelík works at the Department of Media Studies at the Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague and at the Centre for Media Studies. He researches the role of media in totalitarian regimes, he specializes in the history of Czech press in the second half of the 20th century, mainly press regulation and control under the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and at the time of the Czechoslovak crisis in the years 1966 to 1971. E-mail:koncelik@fsv.cuni.cz

Jan Cebe works at the Department of Media Studies at the Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague. His main research interest is the history of media in the 20th century, in particular journalistic organizations.E-mail: cebe@fsv.cuni.cz

Barbara Köpplová is the head of the Department of Media Studies at the Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism at the Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague. Among her main research interests is the development of Czech media in a global context. E-mail: kopplova@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz

INTERVIEW

Jiřina Šmejkalová:
Cultural and Media Studies: The Politics of Location
An interview with Ann Gray (PDF)

Jiřina Šmejkalová is currently a reader in cultural and media studies and a co-director of the Centre for European Cultural Studies at the University of Lincoln. She came to Lincoln in 2003 after six years of teaching at the University of Durham, and previously held teaching and research appoin­tments in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria and the USA. Her key research interests include social and cultural processes in East Central Europe, including the questions of “de-westernizing” cultural studies and media theory, as well as the gendered aspects of cultural production. Her current book-in-progress, entitled A Paper Revolution: Cold War Books and What Came After, is to be released by Brill Publishers (Leiden) in 2009. E-mail: jsmejkalova@lincoln.ac.uk

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