Mediální studia 03/2013

STATĚ / STUDIES

Petr Lupač: Užívání internetu a sociabilita: kořeny, vývoj a současnost výzkumu (PDF)

// Sociability and Internet usage: origins, development and contemporary state of the debate

ABSTRACT Since the very inception of social-scientific research on the Internet, the influence of the Internet on sociability has been an important issue. In the past twenty years, there has been an explosion of the volume of empirical evidence on this subject that has largely left students of this field with the impression of being confronted by a labyrinthine mass of observations replete with contradictory conclusions but offering little or no theoretical syntheses. In this article, the author seeks to systematize the broad range of findings on the Internet and sociability by posing three fundamental questions: does the Internet enrich a user‘s social life and if so in what ways; how are the benefits of Internet use as a medium of interpersonal communication distributed; and, what is the interaction between Internet effects and long-run structural changes in social behaviour. In order to answer these questions, the author compares the leading hypotheses on these issues with empirical evidence. The article offers two original contributions to the field. The first is that it links implicit ‘social theory’ of the computer networking inventors to the early stages of social scientific reflection on the issue of changes to sociability. The second is that the author offers the generalized conclusion that the Internet is merely an amplifying intermediary in a specifically structured transformation of social life (that is occurring irrespective of it) and possesses no inherent added value with the capacity to magically transform a user solely by the act of usage. Therefore, the distribution of benefits seems to a significant extent mimic the distribution of resources postulated in the ‘rich-get-richer’ hypothesis. In the concluding part, the author briefly discusses Wellman‘s concept of networked individualism, which is today both the most elaborated answer to the third question and the one most compatible with existing social theory.

KEYWORDS sociology – Internet – sociability – digital divide – social capital – social network – information society – community – individualism

Mgr. Petr Lupač, PhD., působí jako odborný asistent na katedře sociologie na FF UK, kde přednáší kurzy Obecná sociologie, Sociologie médií, Teorie difúze inovací a Internet a společnost. Absolvoval studijní a výzkumné pobyty na Kansas State University, New York University a University of Liverpool, v minulosti působil také na FHS UK a v Ústavu morální a politické filosofie AV ČR. V současnosti je vedoucím projektu „Světový projekt o Internetu – Česká republika II: Analýza sociálních a politických aspektů nerovného užívání Internetu“. Je členem World Internet Project, Masarykovy české sociologické společnosti a Association of Internet Researchers. Zabývá se obecnou sociologií, sociologií vědy a techniky a sociologií masových a nových médií.  E-mail: petr.lupac@ff.cuni.cz

Palo Fabuš: Událost a sémiodynamika: Napětí mezi rychlostí a srozumitelností v komunikačních procesech (PDF)

// Event and Semiodynamics: Tension between Speed and Intelligibility in Communication Processes

ABSTRACT The critical study focuses on the logic of tension between speed and intelligibility in all social and communicational levels. Presuming a discursively shaped world with its figures and background one can follow the fundamental conditions of communication under the pressure of speed itself, arrived at only at the price of reduction. With the help of Lyotard’s concept of event and Peirce’s categories of firstness, secondness and thirdness, the study analyzes intelligibility as a degree of reduction needed for discoursive praxis to run smoothly and in a self-confirmatory fashion. This autopoietic logic of communicational processes is coined as semiodynamics. The influence of social sciences is briefly accounted for in the concluding part.

KEYWORDS communication – speed – intelligibility – Peirce – event – semiodynamics

Mgr. Palo Fabuš (1983) je studentem doktorského studia sociologie na FF UK v Praze a absolventem mediálních studií a žurnalistiky na FSS MU v Brně. Ve své doktorské práci se zabývá zkoumáním proměn vnímání času z perspektivy historické sociologie. Počínaje rokem 2008 učí na FSS MU teorii sociálních médií. Od roku 2011 je šéfredaktorem mezinárodního časopisu Umělec. E-mail: palo.fabus@gmail.com

Matouš Hrdina: Technologie není apolitická: Poznámky ke studiu politické komunikace v nových médiích (PDF)

// Technology is not apolitical: Notes on study of political communication in new media

ABSTRACT The advent of Internet communication has fundamentally changed both the entire field of social communication and the specific area of political communication. Routine communication models quickly disintegrate and political actors are striving to adapt to new circumstances. Campaigns on social networks and other new methods of propagation come into play. Rapidly evolving communication technologies serve as focal points of this major shift. They can no longer be understood as a mere instrument or agent of political communication, but as another sovereign actor entering into a relationship with politicians, media professionals and the public. If the current research in the field of political communication seeks to effectively identify and solve new issues and dilemmas, it must depart from the traditional theoretical background and focus more on researching the technologies themselves and their inherent political qualities. The article describes the main stages in the evolution of thinking about sovereign and political nature of technology, puts them in contrast to the traditional approaches to the study of political communication based on social constructivist positions, and demonstrates the vital contribution of technocentric approach to selected phenomena of the contemporary political communication on the Internet that cannot be properly understood without in-depth study of the new technologies.

KEYWORDS political communication – Internet – new media – technology – digital media – computers –network – campaign – democracy – digital divide – e-effect

Matouš Hrdina je absolventem mediálních studií na Institutu komunikačních studií a žurnalistiky FSV UK, kde v současnosti pokračuje v doktorském studiu. Ve své disertační práci se zabývá výzkumem internetové komunikace malých českých politických stran a hnutí. V roce 2013 se podílel na rozsáhlém výzkumu kampaní kandidátů v českých prezidentských volbách. Mezi jeho zájmy patří také teorie komunikačních modelů, digitální vizuální kultura a komiksová studia. Email: matous.hrdina@gmail.com

STUDENTSKÉ PRÁCE / STUDENT PAPERS

Martin Vejvoda: Skupinová ideologie v médiích určených lidem s tělesným postižením (PDF)

ABSTRACT The paper raises the question, whether it is possible to trace a group-specific, intellectually elaborate worldview in Czech magazines dedicated to physically challenged people. The aim is to find out, whether these periodicals offer a form of group ideology to the reader and what are its main characteristics. In order to identify this, I use the concept of group ideology by theorist Teun A. van Dijk and his method of ideological discourse analysis.

KEYWORDS identity – physical impairment – group ideology – ideological discourse analysis

Mgr. et Mgr. Martin Vejvoda (1982) vystudoval mediální a komunikační studia na FSV UK a antropologii na FHS UK, nyní je doktorandem v oboru Obecná antropologie na FHS UK. E-mail: ma.vejvoda@gmail.com

Silvester Buček: Typológie hier nezaložené na herných mechanikách (PDF)

ABSTRACT The article introduces typologies of computer games used by gaming community (players, journalists, developers, scholars) that are not based directly on game mechanics. The first part of the text frames the research object in contrast with other similar phenomena (media, sports) and explains the specifics of the immersion caused by the game. The specific characteristic of a game is presented by means of game mechanics, which causes a distinct kind of immersion in comparison to other media experiences. However, the text focuses mainly on a typology defined by factors external to the game itself: the factors taking into consideration a position of game developer. The typology is thus based on the producer type, on the type of used distribution channels, and on the type of virtual platforms – the three external factors considered as partly defining the character of the game.

KEY WORDS games – game mechanics – immersion – game distribution – game platform – game development – a indie games – free to play

Bc. Silvester Buček (1985) vyštudoval filozofiu a politológiu, v súčasnosti dokončuje magisterské štúdium mediálnych štúdií na FSS MU v Brne. Je spoluzakladateľom združenia MU Game Studies, ktoré sa snaží prinášať témy otvárané odborom game studies vo svete do Českej republiky a na Slovensko. Pod hlavičkou združenia organizoval niekoľko konferencií venujúcich sa tejto problematike. V oblasti herných štúdií sa zaoberá najmä taxonomizáciami hier, vzťahom hier a politiky či etnografiou hráčov. Email: sboochek@gmail.com

RECENZNÍ STAŤ / REVIEW PAPER

Eben Muse: Creating Second Lives: Community, Identity and Spatiality as Constructions of the Virtual. Second Life: Místo mezi Zemí a Měsícem. O současných virtuálních podobách těla, self a genderu (Klára Šimůnková) (PDF)

RECENZE / REVIEWS

Anna Remišová: Etika médií  (Jan Motal)  (PDF)

Vojtěch Bednář: Internetová publicistika (Andrea Solčianska)  (PDF)

ZPRÁVY / NEWS  (PDF)

Diminishing role of the journalist in interactive online formats. Abstract of research report (Marju Himma-Kadakas, Signe Ivask)

Letní škola Politika a média (Marta Fialová)

Reklamy