Mediální studia 03/2007

STATĚ / STUDIES

Pavel Večeřa:
Ošemetné Scylly a zrádné Charybdy protektorátních novinářů: K projevům pasivní rezistence a kolaborace na stránkách českých tištěných médií za německé okupace (1939–1945) (PDF)
//Tricky Scyllas and Treacherous Charybdas of the Protectorate Journalists: Manifestations of Passive Resistance and Collaboration in the Czech Print Media during German Occupation (1939–1945)

ABSTRACT
This paper examines the topic of passive resistance and collaboration of Czech journalists under the conditions of the Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia (1939–1945), which was established by the Nazis after the elimination of the Republic of Czecho-Slovakia and the occupation of the Czech lands in 1939. Even during that time, newspapers in Czech language were published, which nevertheless conveyed the interests of the political representation of the Protectorate and, above all, of the occupying power. The Czech print media were governed by the Protectorate and occupational authorities using various manipulative, regulatory and censorship mechanisms. Those Czech journalists who remained working for their respective print media employed various ways of dealing with the situation, including passive resistance as well as collaboration. The aim of this paper is to illuminate some forms of passive resistance, for example distance and subversion, rooted in specific tactics of separation, conservation, retardation, obstruction, irony and neutralization. Regarding the collaborative behaviour, this text focuses on the differences between conformist collaboration, which did not believe in the durability of the occupation and merely passively executed orders coming from the Protectorate but mainly occupational administration, and the activist collaboration, which relied on the idea of a permanent incorporation of the Czech lands into the „Third Reich“ and therefore engaged in an active championing of the German occupation. The paper also analyses the phenomenon of a denunciation, which is treated as a specific phenomenon, being not directly associated with collaboration, not even with its activist type.

KEY WORDS
Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia – Czech protectorate journalism – passive resistance – collaboration – activism – conformism

PhDr. Pavel Večeřa, Ph.D. (1969) působí od roku 2002 jako odborný asistent na Katedře mediálních studií a žurnalistiky Fakulty sociálních studií MU v Brně. Vystudoval obory historie a etnografie na FF MU; v roce 2001 absolvoval postgraduální doktorandské studium na Katedře sociologie FSS MU Brno. Specializuje se na tematiku českých tištěných médií v Protektorátu Čechy a Morava, v kontextu první republiky na problematiku vztahů politických stran a tištěných médií. E-mail: vecera@fss.muni.cz

Jakub Končelík, Jan Cebe, Barbara Köpplová:
Řízení tisku v letech 1939–1945: Analýza protektorátních tiskových porad (PDF)
//Press Regulation between 1939 and 1945: Analysis of Protectorate Press Meetings

ABSTRACT
The article deals with press regulation in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia from 1939 to 1945. It provides a brief introduction to the mechanisms used to influence the content and formal aspects of press communication so that they matched the interests and needs of the occupying power. The main part of the paper presents the results of a quantitative analysis of minutes from press meetings, regularly organized for journalists by the Press Department of the Council of Ministers. At these meetings members of the Press Department and the Cultural and Political Department of the Reich Protector evaluated media performance during the previous period and gave instructions to the representatives of the periodicals about the content and style of their writing. These meetings thus represented one of the most important instruments of control over Protectorate press. Our analysis presents their formal structure and demonstrates, using examples of specific speeches, that the efforts to influence media communication flows were not solely repressive but also clearly manipulative.

KEYWORDS
media – press regulation – press meetings – Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia – 1939 to 1945 – quantitative content analysis – thematic agenda – Czech press – censorship – totalitarian media system

PhDr. Jakub Končelík (1975) působí na Katedře mediálních studií Institutu komunikačních stu­dií a žurnalistiky (IKSŽ) Fakulty sociálních věd UK v Praze (UK FSV) a v Centru pro mediální studia (CEMES). Věnuje se výzkumu role médií v totalitní společnosti; specializuje se na dějiny českého tisku druhé poloviny 20. století, zejména pak na otázky řízení a kontroly tisku v období Protektorátu Čechy a Morava (1939–1945) a v období československé krize přelomu 60. a 70. let (1966–1971). E-mail: koncelik@fsv.cuni.cz

PhDr. Jan Cebe (1978) je člen Katedry mediálních studií IKSŽ UK FSV. V pedagogické i vědecké práci se věnuje především historii médií 20. století se zaměřením na novinářské organizace. E-mail: cebe@fsv.cuni.cz

doc. PhDr. Barbara Köpplová, CSc. (1943) je vedoucí Katedry mediálních studií IKSŽ UK FSV. V pedagogické i vědecké práci se věnuje komparaci vývoje českých médií ve světovém kontextu. E-mail: kopplova@mbox.fsv.cuni.cz

PŘEKLAD / TRANSLATION

John Street: Ztracená politika, transformovaná politika, kolonizovaná politika? Teorie vlivu masových médií /
John Street: Politics Lost, Politics Transformed, Politics Colonised? Theories of the Impact of Mass Media (PDF)
(překlad Jiří Ogrocký)

RECENZE / REVIEWS (PDF)

Mediální studia 2.0?
(Jakub Macek)

Jacques Aumont: Obraz
(Michal Šimůnek)

Jiří Roth: Mediální výchova v Čechách
(Zuzana Zejdová)

Eoin Devereux: Media Studies. Key Issues & Debates
(František Kalvas)

Andy Ruddock: Understanding Audiences. Theory and Method
(František Kalvas)

Reklamy