Mediální studia 01/2016 byla podpořena dotací Odboru médií a audiovize Ministerstva kultury ČR.
MEDIA STUDIES / MEDIÁLNÍ STUDIA
STUDIES / STATĚ
Tomáš KARGER (FF UP, Palacký University, Olomouc):
Internetové pirátství: struktura pozic v ČR PDF
// Internet Piracy: The Structure of Positions in the Czech Republic
ABSTRACT: The study is focused on the symbolic dimension of the dispute about the nature of intellectual property and the ways of its enforcement. The dispute manifests itself mainly as a consequence of a simultaneous occurrence of increased popularity of practices resulting in free distribution of copyrighted works and the increasing efforts to protect copyright claims. With regard to both theory and methodology, the work draws upon Adele Clarke’s situational analysis. This approach is used to make an initial mapping of the situation and the arena and to conduct a positional analysis based on examining the documents of organizations which are active in the context of Czech Republic – the Czech Pirate Party and the Czech Anti-Piracy Union. The aim of the study is to identify and describe the basic structure of positions assumed in the dispute. The positional structure is also interpreted with regard to various forms of alternative approaches to intellectual property such as the one promoted by the free and open source software movement.
Katka KIRKOSOVÁ: (FSS MU, Masaryk University, Brno):
Texty a formy: knihy vázané, brožované a elektronické pohledem českých beletristických nakladatelů PDF
// Texts and Forms: Hardcovers, Paperbacks and E-books in the Use of Czech Book Publishers
ABSTRACT: Exaggerated discussions over electronic and paper books and the changes which such a modification of key communication medium could bring about for the definition of literature or the ways of reading are gradually calming down. The positions of p-book lovers and e-book lovers are defined both in their extreme and moderate variants; now, they merely peck at each other. It seems technology cannot dominate the realm of culture as straightforwardly as the proponents of techno-determinism have dreamt of. Nevertheless, these polemics are analytically highly inspiring: they may refer to some more general ruptures in the logic of contemporary literary fields and speci fically, together with the discursive fights over cultural populism, snobbism or omni vo rousness, call one’s attention to the ambivalent relation of material and literary aspects of books. In this paper, I focus on the ways book publishers, significant gatekeepers of literary field, approach this problem. I describe how they deal with hardcover, paperback or electronic books in terms of practical use and value judgement and also, what outer factors may influence these choices. I interpret their strategies and practices in the context of dominant trends in contemporary Czech literary field and suggest whether publishers see the current material and discursive changes in book culture as symptoms of its further democratization, or banalization.
Iveta JANSOVÁ: (FF UP, Palacký University, Olomouc):
Proměnlivost pojmu populární kultura v prostředí britských kulturálních studií i mimo ně PDF
// The Fluidity of the Term of Popular Culture in the Context of British Cultural Studies and outside of them
ABSTRACT: The term popular culture has many connotations nowadays. This instability of the meaning dates back to the beginning of theorizing about the existence of more layers of a culture, such as high culture, low culture, mass culture or middle culture. Evolution, (re)interpretation or amplification of the meaning of the term of popular culture is the main theme of this paper. It begins with an introduction of confusion of the term with mass culture, then points out the meaning introduced by John Fiske and others and finishes with an idea of an amplified type of popular culture.
Ladislav KLIMEŠ (FHS UK, Charles University, Prague):
Dokumentární realismus digitálního obrazu: Peircovská indexálnost a současné problémy věrohodnosti fotografie a videa PDF
// Documentary realism of digital image: Peircian indexicality and current issues of veracity photography and video
ABSTRACT: The main goal of this paper is to discuss the veracity of a digital image and the possibility of documentary realism in cases of photography and video. Firstly, it reveals that the link between a digital image acquisition and reality is consistent with the one connecting photochemistry image acquisition and reality. This point of view is grounded in the philosophy of Charles S. Pierce, and in the sampling theory, thought of as a part of theory of information. Secondly, this paper concretizes the issues of correspondence concerning the relationship between a taken image and reality. The biggest focus is, in this case, on the concept of the empirical style and its impact on the ethics of photojournalism in the age of image processing. Then the paper investigates the possibilities of current photography and video used as a source for forensic and legal purposes. Lastly, the text sets up a possible future frame of a digital image as a credible and documentary medium.
Zdeněk SLOBODA (FF UP, Palacký University, Olomouc):
Mediální socializace v rodině: několik poznámek k její konceptualizaci PDF
//Media Socialization in the Family: A Few Notes on Its Conceptualization
ABSTRACT: This paper focuses on – at least in the Czech Republic – a poorly explored and theoretically anchored area of media socialization in the family. This text aspires to offer a grasp of this area. As the terminology is either lacking, or confusing, it is discussed at the beginning of the text. The discussion is followed by the introduction of possible paradigmatic approaches to media socialization (the cognitive, behaviourist, constructivist, based on Habermas’s concept of communication competence, or from soviet psychologists Leontief and Vygotsky). The second part of the text introduces a scale from the normative to interactionist perspective on the area introducing: individual instruments of how parents do / can / should socialize (educate) their children, wider parental approaches of educational (socializing) styles (in English often named as parental mediation), and the perspective on media socialization as a dynamic area of intentional and unintentional interactions with and in front of the media (e.g. negotiations, restrictions and their avoidance, ways of use of the media, etc.).
Kamil FLEISSNER, Karel B. MÜLLER: (VŠE, University of Economics, Prague)
Radniční listy jako hlásné trouby politiků? Místní periodika jako indikátory demokratizace na lokální úrovni PDF
// Council Newspapers as Mouthpieces of Politicians? Council Newspapers as an Indicator of Democratisation at a Municipal Level
ABSTRACT: TIn this paper, we compare Černošice, Semily and Hrádek nad Nisou council newspapers and aim to verify the “positive-change-is-feasible” hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, these three municipalities could be interpreted as examples of transparent, effective and accountable local governments. We assume that there is a reflexive relationship between political culture of local governance on the one hand and the institutional and editorial culture of council-run newspapers on the other. In our analysis, we focus on three main criteria: the mode of communication, degree of politicisation and plurality of opinions. Furthermore, we analyse the aspects of positive changes in regards to the informative content and institutional setting of local newspapers. Within the analysed period (between 2005 and 2014), our findings showed that despite all three towns having welcomed amore positive-open change of local governance, only Černošice and Semily council newspapers altered – in relation to the measured parameters – the institutional and editorial culture significantly. Their newspapers became more open, while supporting and building a more participative and liberal political culture. While Hrádek nad Nisou council’s newspaper remained monologic, depoliticised and slightly mayor-centred in character.
ESSAY / ESEJ
David CHUDOBA (FSV UK, Charles University, Prague):
Od fikce fakticity k fakticitě fikce PDF
// From the Fictions of Facticity to the Facticity of Fictions
ABSTRACT: This theoretical paper is based on Hayden White’s ideas contained in his essay The Fictions of Factual Representation and tries to apply them onto the journalistic texts. The starting point is to dismiss the illusion that it is possible to neutrally describe “facts” before their interpretation. Such rejection results from the rhetorical aspect, namely the knowledge that linguistic modes (metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony) prefigure a certain way of explanation. Journalistic texts are mostly based on the mode of metonymy, which implicates a simple description of causality and relations but does not include qualitative aspect of such issue (especially emotions), as the mode of synecdoche does. Journalistic texts therefore cannot capture “reality” in its complexity. In conclusion, this paper proposes to solve such journalistic insufficiency by retrieval of the (pre-positivistic) news genre, which would include imaginary elements of narration (and so would combine the metonymy and synecdoche mode).
REVIEWS / RECENZE PDF
Thilo Sarrazin: Teror ctnosti: O hranicích názorové svobody v Německu
Karol Jakubowicz: Nová ekologie médií: Konvergence a mediamorfóza