Mediální studia 01/2013

STATĚ / STUDIES

Amir Hetsroni:
The Impact of TV Violence on Violent Crime:
Reanalyzing Meta-Analyses and Looking at Longitudinal Figures
(PDF)

ABSTRACT
This article reviews studies on violent crime in television programmes and research documenting the impact of such content on criminal activities. The results of eight meta-analyses pertaining to the behavioural effects of the representation of violence in general and violent crime in particular in TV programming are reanalyzed and year-by-year figures concerning the share of crimerelated programming among the most often watched shows and the level of violent crime according to official statistics in America are juxtaposed. The study found no evidence that an increase in the share of crime-related programming predicts a similar increase in actual crime. In fact, the data even suggest that the effect of exposure to televised crime on criminal behaviour has been declining since the mid-1990s.

KEYWORDS
television – violent crime – violence – content – effect – news – drama – USA – public policy

Amir Hetsroni is an associate professor in the School of Communication at the Ariel University in Israel. He holds a doctorate in communication from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. He is the author and editor of three academic books and nearly 50 articles that were published in scholarly journals such as Journal of Communication, Communication Monographs, Communication Research, Journal of Advertising, International Journal of Communication, European Journal of Communication Research and others. His research interests include the content and effect of popular TV programming and advertising and their implications for public policy issues such as censorship and communication theories like cultivation and media system dependency. E-mail: amirhetsroni@gmail.com; amirhe@ariel.ac.il

Ianis Bucholtz:
Diffused Intimacy: Trust and Self-Disclosure in Online Relationship (PDF)

ABSTRACT
Self-disclosure can facilitate the development and maintenance of online relationships but it also poses challenges — the overlapping of distinct social spheres and invisibility of audiences can make communication more complicated. The aim of this paper is to analyze the outcomes of this conflict between self-disclosure risks and benefits. Data from the Latvian online social networking/online diary site Sviesta ciba suggest that self-disclosure and trust are associated with socially positive outcomes but the number of users’ online connections does not depend on the level of their intimate self-disclosure. I argue that the site’s users incorporate principles of “diffused intimacy” in their communication patterns, i.e. they accept risks that are associated with disclosing personal information to their audience in return for potentially facilitated communication and other social benefits.

KEYWORDS
self-disclosure –trust –intimacy –social networking sites –online diaries –online communication

Ianis Bucholtz (Jānis Buholcs) received his PhD from the University of Latvia in 2013. His research interests include social networks, interpersonal communication, and online media. He teaches courses in new media economics and online journalism and also writes for Latvian media on foreign affairs and Internet-related issues. E-mail: janis.buholcs@lu.lv

Olga Pouperová:
Vývoj právní úpravy vydávání tisku na našem území/Developments in press regulation in the Czech Republic (PDF)

ABSTRACT
The article deals with the development of press regulation in the Czech Republic and its historical contexts. The study of the development of institutions of press regulation in various historical periods (athough recent) helps us to understand current press regulation too. Amendments to press law illustrate how the society is changing, while both objective (especially technical and technological) and subjective reasons (especially value system) need to be contrasted.

KEYWORDS
press – periodical press – press law – censorship – colportage – correction – official correction – reply – obligatory printout

JUDr. Olga Pouperová, Ph.D. (1982) je odbornou asistentkou na Katedře správního práva a správní vědy Právnické fakulty Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci. Externě spolupracuje také s Katedrou žurnalistiky Filozofické fakulty UP. Na obou katedrách vyučuje předměty vztahující se k právním aspektům činnosti médií. Je absolventkou magisterského studijního programu na Právnické fakultě Univerzity Palackého v Olomouci; rigorózní práci na téma tiskové právo obhájila na Právnické fakultě Masarykovy univerzity v Brně a disertační práci na téma veřejnoprávní regulace médií na Právnické fakultě Univerzity Karlovy v Praze. Vedle své pedagogické činnosti spolupracuje s některými českými provozovateli sdělovacích prostředků. Email: olga.pouperova@upol.cz

Hanka Sládková:
Vizualita v mediální komunikaci: témata, přístupy a souvislosti/Visuality in Mediated Communication: Topics, Approaches and Contexts (PDF)

ABSTRACT
The text sums up topics connected with visuality and its role in communication, as described in contemporary professional journals. The context and themes that preceded and constituted the field known as visual studies or visual culture studies are briefly mentioned as well as the themes of early 21st century texts. The texts from mid-2000s shift to more particular subjects of visuality (convergence of different media, visual contents and meanings, design and patterns used in visual media) while the most recent texts focus on the wider context of visuality potential and its possible influence on society (visual means establishing identity, visual hyperreality, stereotypes, manipulation etc.). The summary, comparison and context of the texts on visuality and recapitulation of their thematic agenda should allow us to define the scope and other important features of the debate.

KEYWORDS
visuality – visual content – picture – pictoral – media – visual communication

PhDr. Hanka Sládková (1981) je doktorandkou na Katedře mediálních studií Fakulty sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy. Zabývá se výtvarnou kritikou a výtvarným uměním v médiích. Její doktorský projekt je zaměřený na proměnu české výtvarné publicistiky po roce 1989. E-mail: hankasladkova@gmail.com

STUDENTSKÉ PRÁCE / STUDENT PAPERS

Pavla Francová:
Východoněmecká tisková agentura ADN/ The East German press agency ADN (PDF)

ABSTRACT
This article deals with the establishment and development of the East German press agency Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst (ADN). The history and main changes and tendencies of the agency are described here from its foundation in 1946 till its closure in 2000 when the name of ADN definitely disappeared. ADN was founded in 1946 originally as a private non-profit company by 14 representatives of East German press of different political affiliations. After six years of existence the agency was nationalized and became de facto a tool of the ruling party SED to exercise its power. The agency ADN had a monopoly in East Germany, no other press agency was allowed to work there. It became a main source of information for other media about national and international news and also acted as a mediator between the leading political elites and the mass media. The fall of GDR brought many problems to ADN and it was not able to continue without state subsidies. Till 2000 ADN existed as part of other press agencies. The paper also gives a brief outline of the history of the Soviet occupation zone of Germany and later the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from 1945 till the end of 1989. Further, an overview of the GDR media landscape and its main attributes and characteristics are discussed in the paper. The GDR’s media regulatory system in the second half of the 20th century is also discussed.

KEYWORDS
Allgemeiner Deutscher Nachrichtendienst (ADN) – German Democratic Republic (GDR) –news agency – media – censorship – media regulation

Mgr. Pavla Francová v lednu 2011 absolvovala magisterský studijní obor mediální studia na Fakultě sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy. V diplomové práci se věnovala dějinám a působení východoněmecké tiskové agentury ADN. V současné době studuje doktorské studium mediálních studií na stejném ústavu UK. Věnuje se problematice systému řízení a kontroly médií v Německé demokratické republice se zaměřením na vzdělávání novinářů a personální politiku v tamních médiích. Kromě toho je studentkou magisterského oboru německých a rakouských studií na Fakultě sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy, kde se zabývá především vývojem politické strany Die Linke. E-mail: Francovapavla@seznam.cz

Kateřina Kňapová:
Obraz stávky dopravních odborů z června 2011 ve vysílání České televize/The coverage of the June 2011 transportation union strike on Czech Television (PDF)

ABSTRACT
Transportation unions’ strike in June 2011 became one of the main protest against the government and its reforms and the Czech Television as a public service broadcaster paid a lot of attention to it. The decision to use semiotic analysis in this paper is based on the notion that media as institutions contribute to the reproduction of dominant ideology their use of language and various means verbal espression. The image of the protest and its participants is strongly influenced by stereotypes and connected with a notion of rather passive Czech political culture and characteristics related to it. The political culture is personalized through the category of “common citizens“. Common citizens are also constructed in opposition to union members. Common citizens’ point of view is projected to the image of the strike – it is presented as action with no real impact on the government’s policies and reforms. The representation of the strike also implies that its main purpose is to upset as many people as possible.

KEY WORDS
semiotic analysis – ideology – political culture – unions strike – the Czech television

Bc. Kateřina Kňapová (1990) vystudovala bakalářský obor sociologie a sociální antropologie na Fakultě sociálních věd Univerzity Karlovy v Praze a nyní studuje navazující magisterský obor politické teorie a současné dějiny na Filozofické fakultě Univerzity Karlovy v Praze. Je také součástí českého týmu v mezinárodním projektu „Caught in the act of protest: Contextualizing contestation“, který se zabývá výzkumem současných protestů a politické mobilizace. K problematice kritické analýzy médií se dostala v kurzu Mediální reprezentace minulosti a současnosti. Základem pro analýzu obrazu stávky v České televizi byla seminární práce, kterou zpracovala právě pro tento kurz. E-mail: knapova.katerina@gmail.com

RECENZE / REVIEWS (PDF)
Hugo Bigi: Journalism Education between Market Dependence
and Social Responsibility. An Examination of Trainee Journalists

(Marína Urbániková)

Michael Bilig: Banal nationalism
(Tereza Hronová)

Graham Meikle, Sherman Younge: Media convergence:
networked digital media in everyday life
(Zuzana Karaščáková)


ZPRÁVY / NEWS
EUTIC 2012: Verejnostť a prax médií
(Peter Mikuláš)