Mediální studia 01/2011

STATĚ / STUDIES 

Jakub Macek:
Poznámky k vývoji studií nových médií (PDF)
//Notes on History of New Media Studies

ABSTRACT
The paper deals with new media studies and focuses on their historical development and their relationship to media studies. New media studies are conceived as a interdisciplinary metafield of shared interest where social sciences and humanities meet in their need to research and theorize new ICT based on digital coding of contents as social and cultural phenomena. Since media studies play role of one of several disciplines colonizing the thematic field of new media, the paper at the first place aims to identify set of new media issues being solved specifically by this discipline. Consequently, the paper reconstructs history of new media studies since 1960s until 2000s, with an emphasis on key influences that shaped the metafield of new media studies and formed their theoretical and empirical body.

KEY WORDS
new media – new media studies – media studies – metafield of studies – cyberculture – social constructivism

Mgr. Jakub Macek, Ph.D. (1979) působí jako odborný asistent na Katedře společenských věd VŠB–TU Ostrava a na Katedře mediálních studií a žurnalistiky na Masarykově univerzitě v Brně. Vystudoval mediální studia a žurnalistiku na FSS MU, kde rovněž získal doktorát ze sociologie. Zabývá se primárně studiemi nových médií a problematikou mediálních subkultur. E-mail: jakub.macek@gmail.com

Michal Šimůnek:
Fotožurnalismus je mrtev, ať žije fotožurnalismus. Proč může digitalizace zvyšovat důvěryhodnost novinářské fotografie (PDF)
//Photojournalism Is Dead, Long Live Photojournalism. Why Digitization Can Increase the Credibility of Journalistic Photography

ABSTRACT
By the end of the second half of the 1990s the analogue photography was in practice of journalism definitively replaced by the digital photography. Enthusiasm, originally aroused by numerous advantages which digitization brought to photojournalism, soon subsided due to many cases of misuse of digital technology and its easy manipulability by journalists and editors. Ethically questionable interventions into the content of photographs have been perceived as extremely serious and dangerous and according to many reactions have led to the fatal breach of trust in the truthfulness of photography, some critics have even seen them as the cause of the end of photography and the death of photojournalism. I do not intend to argue that manipulations disrupting the direct indexical connection between the photography and its referent are unproblematic and of no consequence. However, the reflections on the death of photojournalism have been overly focused on this issue which has on the one hand overshadowed the fact that there are other, more cunning ways of lying by means of photography and has on the other hand resulted in overlooking that however much the digitization has threatened the credibility of journalism, it has also brought possibilities of its strengthening. In order to see the digitization as a means of increasing the credibility of photojournalism it is important to be able to abandon to certain extent the assumptions and expectations of the photo-realist paradigm and embrace the epistemic challenges of post-realist paradigm. The following paper attempts to identify, conceptualize and on some new trends illustrate this paradigmatic shift in photojournalism.

KEY WORDS
photojournalism – digitization – indexicality – multimedia journalism – decontextualisation – recontextualisation – double indexicality – credibility – realism and post-realism

Mgr. Michal Šimůnek, Ph.D. (1976) vystudoval obor mediální studia a v roce 2011 zakončil obhajobou disertační práce Technické obrazy v sociálních vědách doktorské studium v oboru sociologie na FSS MU v Brně. Od roku 2004 působí na Katedře společenských věd PF JU, kde vyučuje sociologii, sémiotiku médií a mediální gramotnost. Věnuje se fotografii, zajímají ho zejména způsoby její sociologické interpretace, možnosti využití v empirickém sociologickém výzkumu a při výuce sociologie. Obdivuje fotografie „nerozhodujících okamžiků“. Kontakt: simunek.michal@gmail.com

STUDENTSKÁ PRÁCE / STUDENT PAPER

Kateřina Kirkosová:
Populární kultura jako interpretační výzva: Pokus o nové čtení (PDF)
//Popular Culture as a Challenge for Interpretation

ABSTRACT
In this paper, I deal with the question of reading popular culture, while my attention is predominantly aimed on text and interpretative possibilities it itself gives to reader. The basic presuposition is that author, text and reader are of the same importance in processes of meaning-making and therefore they are analytically separable and analysis of each one of them is worthwile for more complex understanding. Despite of this, text sometimes seemed to be missed out of discussion over mass (popular) culture and was regarded mainly as tough product filled with ideology of Culture industry (as in Critical Theory) or as unwarranted creation of individual recipients (as in cultural studies). In here, I base my argumentation on works of Jean-Francois Lyotard and Roman Ingarden; text is treated as an three-dimensional entity, which can be interpreted differently according to reader’s state of mind (pragmatic, theoretic, aesthetic). With regard to background of postmodernism, all of these states of mind are perceived as equivalent ones, although they are dissimilar in their purporses, motivations and findings. After short introduction of these, I will more closely explain what aesthetic state of mind is and what its consequences in reading popular culture text could be. Finally, I will use these remarks to argue that the realms of “art”and of “popular culture” have similar inward structure with high, middle and low levels, which opens up more space for their comparison and helps to leave behind old prejudice.

KEY WORDS
postmodernism – popular culture – ways of reading – interpretation – aesthetics

Mgr. et Mgr. Kateřina Kirkosová (1984) je doktorandkou na Katedře mediálních studií a žurnalistiky Fakulty sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity v Brně; vedle oboru mediální studia a žurnalistika vystudovala obor český jazyk a literatura na Filozofické fakultě MU. Soustředí se na problematiku vzájemné komunikace mezi sférou uměleckou a sférou populární kultury. Zde publikovaný text je upravenou částí stejnojmenné diplomové práce, obhájené na KMSŽ v červnu 2009. E-mail: 143760@mail.muni.cz

RECENZE / REVIEWS (PDF)

Václav Nekvapil, Rudolf Vévoda: Média, kultura a náboženství
(Ondřej Krajtl, FF MU Brno)

Marita Sturken, Lisa Cartwright: Studia vizuální kultury
(Alena Lábová, FSV UK Praha)

Tomáš Trampota, Martina Vojtěchovská: Metody výzkumu médií
(Marcel Lincényi, UKF Nitra)

Juraj Vojtek, Imrich Jenča, Pavol Holeštiak, Ján Višňovský: Dejiny svetových novinárstiev (anglického a amerického)
(Juliána Laluhová, FMK UCM Trnava)

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